Kay Deaux for reading the manuscript and her excellent and valuable comments. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Jul Martiny , 2 Ilka H. Gleibs , 3 Melanie M. Keller , 4 and Laura Froehlich 5.
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Sarah E. Ilka H. Melanie M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Aug 14; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Introduction In today's societies migration is widespread.
Ethnic classroom composition effects on performance The first focus of the present research is to investigate the relationship between ethnic classroom composition i. Effects of turkish-origin students' proportion on performance in germany Among the OECD countries, Germany is one of the countries in which social or ethnic background has the strongest impact on academic achievement Entorf and Minoiu, and thus it is an important population in which to investigate specific effects of ethnic composition in the schools. Ethnic classroom composition effects on sense of belonging The second focus of the present work is to investigate the relationship between ethnic classroom composition and students' sense of belonging.
Sense of belonging in the educational context While sense of belonging has been well-investigated for negatively stereotyped adults in academic domains Good et al.
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Measures Reading performance In the present study, we focused on reading performance as a dependent variable because it is an important basic competency to acquire and implement new knowledge and thus is crucial for school success Snow, Table 1 Loadings for the rotated factors for school perception.
Factors 1 2 Sense of belonging Negative school perception I feel I belong. Open in a separate window. Main predictors and covariates Earlier research has shown that individual- and classroom-level variables are linked to students' academic performance and sense of belonging Osterman, ; Walter and Stanat, Ethnicity At the student level, students' migration background i. Percentage of turkish-origin students At the classroom level, we introduced an aggregated variable describing the percentage of Turkish-origin versus non-Turkish-origin i.
Cross-level interaction between percentage of turkish-origin students and ethnicity We also added the cross-level interaction between ethnicity at the student level and the percentage of Turkish-origin students at the classroom level to examine the cross-level interaction effects of the Turkish-origin students' percentage on our dependent variables. Student-level covariates At the student level, various studies have demonstrated that the performance of migrant students particularly in Germany is strongly influenced by the socioeconomic status of their parents Entorf and Minoiu, Classroom-level covariates A range of studies have found that migrants' performance is also affected by SES and previous knowledge at the classroom level e.
Data analysis To test our hypothesis we followed a multilevel modeling approach to account for the nested structure of the data i. Results Preliminary analysis We first tested the independence of our dependent variables. Table 2 Regression results for reading performance and sense of belonging. Discussion The present study aimed at extending previous research on ethnic composition effects at the classroom level not only for Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance, but also for their sense of belonging to school.
Implications In the present study, we found a different relationship between ethnic classroom composition and performance and sense of belonging, respectively.
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Limitations One limitation of the present work lays in the cross-sectional nature of the data, which does not allow us to draw causal conclusions and to investigate the long-term effects of the Turkish-origin students' ethnic composition in the classroom. Conclusion This research highlights the impact of ethnic composition on performance and sense of belonging for both migrant and non-migrant students.
Author contributions All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments We thank Professor Dr. References Agirdag O. Why does the ethnic and socio-economic composition of schools influence math achievement? The role of sense of futility and futility culture. Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.
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A multilevel analysis of the Norwegian case. Being smart or getting smarter: implicit theories of intelligence moderate stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects. It's Their Responsibility, Not Ours. Sense of relatedness as a factor in children's academic engagement and performance. Reducing intergroup bias: the benefits of recategorization. A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status.
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Issues Comp. Why do women opt out? Sense of belonging and women's representation in mathematics. The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: scale development and educational correlates. The role of friendship in adolescents' sense of school belonging.
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Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium? Berlin: Heenemann GmbH. Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. Within-class grouping: a meta-analysis. The social psychology of stigma. Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: the role of psychological disengagement. Effects of activating negative stereotypes about Turkish-origin students on performance and identity management in German high schools.
Revue Int. From PISA to educational standards: the impact of large-scale assessments on science education in Germany. Becoming an in-group: reexamining the impact of familiarity on perceptions of group homogeneity. PISA results: what students know and can do: student performance in reading, mathematics and science Volume I. Paris: OECD. Students' need for belonging in the school community.
How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: an interactional perspective.
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Issues 57 , — Academic; and psychological functioning in late adolescence: the importance of school belonging. Influence of long-term racial environmental composition on subjective well-being in African Americans. Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' psychological and behavioral functioning in school: the mediating role of goals and belonging.
On interpreting stereotype threat as accounting for african American-White differences on cognitive tests. The meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups. Multilevel analysis. London: Sage. Der Einfluss des Migrantenanteils in Schulklassen auf den Kompetenzerwerb. He was deported two weeks ago. The room fell silent when they stepped off the stage. A few teenagers had just destroyed her integration show. They had shown her and the assembled journalists that an entire country has been lying to itself for years when it comes to the subject of integration, and to the children and grandchildren of immigrants.
Many in this young generation still feel as if they haven't arrived in Germany. It's their home, and yet for many it remains a foreign place.
And despite the German government's official celebration this week to mark the 50th anniversary of the German-Turkish recruitment agreement, some of the children and grandchildren of those first immigrants see little reason to celebrate. Chancellor Angela Merkel will try to keep up appearances. She will meet with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in Berlin this week, and together they will thank the first Turkish guest workers for their services to Germany.
It'll be the usual official treatment of this subject: lots of words, big speeches and, if possible, some sort of an appeal. But nothing will be offered to improve the current situation. Half a century after West Germany began promoting immigration, German society is having a hard time dealing with the second and third generations, and with the question of how to give meaning to the word integration. The country seems to be losing its connection with parts of the younger generation. And although they did grow up in Germany, they have fewer prospects for success there than their fathers and grandfathers, who came to the country as adults to find work or political asylum.
Almost a third of all men and women with foreign roots between the ages of 25 and 35 have no professional qualifications. The data is especially alarming for the roughly three million Turkish immigrants, Germany's largest minority. The share of young Turks with no professional qualifications rose from 44 to 57 percent between and This figure alone -- 57 percent -- perfectly illustrates the sheer magnitude of the failure on both sides.
At the same time, those with higher qualifications, the ones Germany urgently needs, say they want to get out as soon as possible. In , there was net outward migration from Germany to Turkey for the first time. This too is an indication of the failure of a modern society. For many immigrants, Germany is no longer attractive enough. The failures of the children and grandchildren of guest workers, says Bade, is "an unnecessary social, economic and political catastrophe. The country is unquestionably dependent on the children of immigrants, young people like Shalau Baban, whose family once fled from Iraq.
He grew up in Marburg, a university town in central Germany. He goes to school there and has German friends, and yet he too uses terms like "the Germans" and "we foreigners" to classify people. The rap songs he and his friend Daniel Fisher, 18, write are furious responses to the insincerity of many politicians who discuss immigrants, thereby defining these two high-school students as problem cases, and as two boys who don't belong.
In a few years, well over 50 percent of the residents over 40 in many large western German cities will be immigrants. The Prognos research institute predicts that Germany will be short three million workers by For the economy, the children of immigrants could be a welcome reservoir of globally thinking and culturally diverse employees, and yet the reality is different in many respects. Some 2.
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